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April 30, 2006

1820 One Cent Piece

For sale. 1820 One Cent Piece United States coin. Large date. The front has some wear. The back appears to be in perfect condition.

No photo available at this time.

Serious offers welcome. Please include preferred shipping method and price in your offer.

Contact: mariecarnes@gmail.com

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Posted by Marie at 05:19 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack

Century of Progress Squished Penny

For sale. Century of Progress Squished Penny - Skyway and Observation Tower World's Fair Chicago 1933.

Copper penny. Oval shaped. Aged like a penny from 1933. But, it is in good condition. Fine definition on front. Smooth back.

No photo available at this time.

Serious offers welcome. Please include shipping method and price in your offer.

Contact: mariecarnes@gmail.com

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Posted by Marie at 04:28 PM | Comments (0) | TrackBack

Testing Edgeio


Posted by Whoist at 02:06 AM | Comments (0) | TrackBack

April 19, 2006

Sample text

Chapter 10: Cellular Mechanisms of Memory
Simple Learning & Neural Changes
Brain Systems

1. Types of Simple Learning:Non-associative
a. Habituation ̵ occurs when a stimulus is presented repeatedly, serially, without change
b. Sensitization ̵ reversal of the habituated response (change in intensity, modality)
c. Both types involve exposure to single, repeating, inconsequential stimulus

2. Types of Learning:Associative
a. Classical conditioning ̵ occurs when a neutral stimulus is paired with a non-neutral stimulus, and after repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus elicits the same or similar response as the non-neutral stimulus
b. Operant conditioning ̵ occurs when a behavior is followed by a response that either increases or decreases the likelihood of that response occurring in the future

3. Sea Snail Aplysia California
a. If siphon of Aplysia is stimulated, results in reflexive response of gill withdrawal
b. Repeated stimulations result in habituation, decrease in amount of neurotransmitter released by sensory neuron, and decrease in firing of motor cell

4. Sea snail…..
a. Habituation results when synaptic excitation decreases at the synapse of an already existing neural pathway
b. State of habituation is temporary in the snail
c. Allow the snail to rest, then repeat the stimulation>>>>>sensitization (withdrawal of gill resumes)

5. Sensitization in the snail involves:
a. Release of serotonin by an interneuron between the sensory and motor neuron, which stimulates>>>>>>
b. increased levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the sensory neuron>>>>>>
c. resulting in increased levels of cAMP released by the sensory neuron

6. Conclusions to be drawn from the Sea Snail?
a. Simple learning (non-associative)
b. may be due to chemicals released at the
c. synapse.
d. Without release of certain chemicals, organisms cannot habituate or learn to adapt to stimuli.

7. Classical Conditioning (type of associative learning)
a. Fruit Fly research by Seymour Benzer
b. Flies that could not be classically conditioned to respond to odors paired with electric shock were found deficient in:
c. calcium
d. cAMP

8. Relevance to Human Learning?
a. Importance of calcium
b. Importance of cAMP
c. Evolutionary influence

9. Rabbit Research (John Harvey and Richard Thomas)
a. Nictitating-Membrane Reflex and Conditioning
b. Condition rabbits to blink to a puff of air
c. Important brain sites:
d. interpositus nucleus (within cerebellum)
e. inferior olivary nucleus (within medulla, connects to cerebellum)

10. Interference with Nictitating-Membrane Conditioned Reflex
a. Injection of GABA antagonist
b. Lesions of the interpositus nucleus
c. Chemical lesions to inferior olivary nucleus

11. Long Term Potentiation (LTP)
a. Long lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission
b. Initiated by glutamate acting at the NMDA receptor site

12. Long Term Depression (LTD)
a. Cellular and molecular model for forgetting

Posted by Whoist at 09:37 PM | Comments (0)